06 settembre 2012

Albania was inhabited since prehistoric times, as attested by various archaeological finds.

Le origini(2000 a.C. - 167 a.C.)
AlbaniaAlbania was inhabited since prehistoric times, as attested by various archaeological finds.
The ancestors of the Albanians are Illyrians, the indigenous population that occupied a very wide area, from the Danube to the Balkans. This gens has played a major role in political events of the ancient Mediterranean way.
The first manifestations of this civilization back to 'start of the second millennium BC, when they were frequent wars between tribes. That is the Illyrians were soon forced to join in alliances, so that their territory is trasformň soon into a powerful state.
Historical illustrious, as Demosthenes and Strabo, remember the value of these "tigers of war." In particular Strabo, who described all the tribes Illyrian appointment of Albanet.
Around 1000 BC, the Illyrians occupied the territory of Albania and founded a kingdom.
The clash with Rome, which sought to extend its control over 'Adriatic, was inevitable: the Illyrian-Roman wars, started in 229 BC ended in 167 BC with the victory of Rome. The Illyrian people were reduced to slavery and its territory was divided into small units' administrative.
(V sec. - XIV sec.) After the division of the Roman Empire in 395, the Albanians were assigned territories of the East.

In the same year but 'iniziň a tragic series of barbarian invasions: Visigoths, Huns, Ostrogoths poured into Illyria, Macedonia and Greece. Finally, towards the end of the sixth century slave tribe of Serbs reached the Albanian territory where they established numerous independent principalities canceling much of the history of the native population, assimilating.
Only South Illyrians resisted the hurricanes Time to reappear on the scene a few more centuries later as the Albania.

In the tenth and eleventh centuries iniziň the decline of social slavery, and in its place subentravano elements characteristic of feudalism: the noble arbereshe is dropped from Byzantium and formed the principality of Arberia, the first feudal state of Albanian history.
In the following centuries the country - where already the eleventh century is documented as "Albanians" to designate the descendants of the Illyrians - was the scene of fierce rivalry for its possession between the Bulgarians, Venetians, Swabians, Angevins, etc.., Until in 1389 the Turkish invaders

La dominazione turca(1389 -1912) I resisted local principalities united under the leadership of Prince Gjergj Kastrioti (Giorgio Castriota), said Skanderbeg (1405-1468), which combattč successfully against the Turks, driving the 'insurrection of the Albanian people, terrified by the methods of repressive rulers.During the fight the Albanians against the Ottomans continuň to develop the process of formation of a single centralized state, and the banner of family Kastrioti, with 'two-headed black eagle on a red field, became the national flag of Albania.On the death of Skanderbeg, the Albanians were dragged from the Ottoman Empire, which had never ceased to send regular armies led by the most skilled pasciŕ Turks.The final Ottoman occupation portň with it the economic ruin of the country and the decline of indigenous culture, the destruction of cities, works of art and architecture and the conversion of most of the Muslim population.Many addressed characterized the turkish domain, but reduce it.It was only the weakening of Turkey by Russia (1877 -78) to give new strength to the Albanian separatist movement, which since 1940 had begun to take insistently first recognition of cultural and political rights of 'Albania, and after' independence.At this time the 'opening of the first Albanian school (1877) and' introduction of a common alphabet throughout the country, still in use today.All 'beginning of 900, under the threat of dismemberment and' annexation of the territory of the Balkan monarchies, the revolutionary forces Albanians resumed force in 1910 outbreak 'revolt against the Turks.During the First Balkan War, in response to incursions into Albanian territory of the enemy coalition, Ismail Kemal Bey November 28, 1912 proclamň independence.The European powers recognized that independence, but the power entrusted to the German Prince William of Wied (April 1914).
Tra le due guerre(1914 - 1945) The outbreak of the First World War spazzň away the fragile political structure. Italy, Greece and several other countries in the occupied Albania, whose independence was finally recognized in 1920.

Continue internal crisis tore however, 'the country: in 1924 it scatenň the bourgeois-democratic revolution against the reactionary landowners and a few months came to power a progressive government.
The counter was swift and democratic government was overthrown by reactionaries led by Ahmet Zogu, who was elected president in 1925 and in 1928 proclamň king (in reality with dictatorial powers).
Under this regime, Albania 's continuň to be the most backward country in Europe in 1938,' 80% of the population lived on agriculture, the 'university education and cultural institutions lacked everything there health care, malaria was a social disease, the 'average age was 38 years.

In April 1939 the 'Albania was occupied by the troops of Mussolini.
Against these Albanians put up a heroic resistance, while creating a fabric of partisan groups and socialist intellectuals that in 1941, under the leadership of Enver Hoxha, and clandestinitŕ, founded the Albanian Communist Party.

After the withdrawal of German troops (proclamation of liberation November 29, 1944, a national holiday), Hoxha proclamň on 11 February 1945, the People's Republic of Albania.
La Repubblica Popolare d' Albania(1945 - 1991) The Hoxha regime had a huge task ahead: to bring the 'outside Albania for centuries of obscurantism, a medieval extended up to our days.There was thus an urgent necessitŕ to bind to more advanced nations.But the memory of centuries of foreign oppression was too deep because the State giovanme lend itself to alliances that will restrict the 'ideological and political independence. Then comes the ballet of allegiance and broken-even outstanding-communist countries with the "brothers".Until 1948 there was a customs and monetary union with Yugoslavia, but the split between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union prompted the only Albania and decisively towards the USSR. With the de-Stalinization, which began in starting in 1956, relations between the two states and cooled after a final rupture, which occurred in 1961, Albania avvicinň Chinese People's Republic. The invasion of Soviet troops in Czechoslovakia in 1968 determinň the output of Albania from the Warsaw Pact. In the 1977-78 Albania (which in the meantime had been completely isolated from Europe), pragmatic orientation adopted by Beijing, took distances from China.Hoxha guidň the rebirth of the country with an iron fist, drawing up a constitution with strong Stalinist, banning private property and the possibility to profess a faith, freed of unscrupulous political opponents, and giving life to secure the fearsome police state with espionage tasks (apparently there was involved almost half of the population).For fear of possible invasions, covers the territory of concrete bunkers, now dilapidated shelter of nomads and animals.Later, though, after Hoxha's death in 1985, 'Albania seem' not endure anymore the "dictatorship of the proletariat", and determinň a cautious opening of the country; Hoxha's successor, Ramiz Alia, initiated a economic and political rapprochement with the West and, under the pressure of bloody rebellions broke out across the country, some concessions and some reform, hampered by the heirs of Pern Hoxha still widely supported in the countryside: in the 1991 election they have won a large parliamentary majority, making it so uncertain and difficult process of democratization of the regime.

Gruppi etnici Albanesi 97%, Greci 2%, Slavi 1%.

Albania is the country most ŕ "couple" of Europe for the average age of its inhabitants.

About half of the population works in agriculture.

Albania is, together with Turkey, one of the world's largest producers of chromium. It can also count on rich deposits of copper, nickel and iron.


The territory of Albania has been inhabited since Antiquity. Traces of life from the period of middle and late Paleolithic (100 000 - 10 000 years ago) are found in Xare, as well as in the Cave of Saint Marina in Saranda.
Illirian Artifact Illyrian
Albanians are the direct successors of the Illyrians. The Illyrian tribes stretched along the Western part of the Balkans, and they reached the rivers Sava and Danube in the North, the rivers Morava and Vardar on the East (the border line with Thrake), and the mountain-chain of Pindi in the South and South-East (the border with the Greeks and Macedonians).
The very fast economic development, especially that of the metallurgy of bronze and iron (XI - V century BC) created the spiritual and material culture of common values for all the Illyrian tribes. By the end of the fifth century BC, the Illyrians entered the road of slave-ownership, and well-known cities of that time, which exist even today, like Durrahium (Durres), Apollonia, Butroti (Butrint), Scodra (Shkodra), Lissus (Lezha), etc, were founded mainly along sea shore.
The Roman invasion (year 168 BC) had very heavy consequences for the Illyrians, but nevertheless, they successfully faced the assimilating policy of the Romans, mainly thanks to the high standard of development and the clearly crystallized ethnic identity.
With the break up of the Roman Empire in the year 395 AD, Illyria remained under the Byzantine Empire. In the following period, Illyria suffered the invasion of several barbarian tribes, like Goths, Avars, etc.
During the IV - VI centuries, Slavs invaded part of the Northern and Eastern Illyria, as well as Macedonia, parts that with the passing of time were assimilated.
The end of the first millennium marks the crystallization of the Albanian nation. Latter on, the Albanian political formations of the XIV century covered territories from Tivar and Prizren down to Kostur and Vlora, meanwhile in the districts of the Southern part, the historic name of Epyrus was preserved, which in the coming years served as a synonym of Arberi (quite often, the National Hero Gjergj Kastrioti Scanderbeg (1405 - 1468) was called "the Prince of Epyrus").
Skanderbeg Skanderbeg
The Ottoman invasion (XIV century) established the military feudal system in Arberia (Albania), but several continuous uprisings of the Albanian princes prepared the glorious resistance of the Albanian people under the leadership of the National Hero Gjergj Kastrioti, known as Skanderbeg. Skanderbeg managed to give birth to a centralized Albanian state (Arberia), and his flag became the national flag of Albania.
The XVIII century marks the flourishing of two Albanian very well organized and very powerful "Patriarchies": The Patriarchy of Bushatllinj (with Shkodra as its center and governed by Karamahmut Pasha Bushatlli); and the Patriarchy of Ioaninna, with Ioaninna as its center and governed by Ali Pashe Tepelena). The peak of the struggle for independence and national identity was reached with the Albanian Renaissance Movement, which starts in 1830.
In 1878, this movement was very well organized under the League of Prizren, which served as the first military and political leadership of the Albanian uprisings. But, unfortunately enough, in the same year, the Congress of Berlin decided the division of the Albanian territories to the benefit of the neighboring states, Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.
Proclamation of Independence Proclamation of
Nevertheless, the Albanian movement for freedom was crowned with the Proclamation of Independence, on November 28, 1912.
During the years of the World War I, Albania was converted into a battlefield for the combating powers, and it was invaded consequently by the Italy, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, France and Austro-Hungary.
In 1920, the Congress of Lushnja (a town 90 km south to Tirana), with the consensus of all the representatives from all over Albania declared Tirana to be the Capital of Albania.
On January 21, 1925, the Constitutional Assembly declared Albania a Parliamentary Republic and Ahmet Zog was elected President of Albania, but he had so much power in his hands that, in fact, the Republic functioned as a Presidential one.
On September 1, 1928, the Constitutional Assembly declared Albania Democratic Parliamentary Kingdom and Ahmet Zog the King of Albania, receiving the royal title "Zog I".
On April 7, 1939, fascist Italy invaded Albania, and consequently on April 12, 1939, the so-called Constitutional Assembly declared the end of Zog's Kingdom and offered the crown to Victor Emanuel III. The Albanian State formally remained a Constitutional Kingdom under the Savoy Dynasty.
On November 29, 1944, Albania was liberated from the nazi-fascist invaders. Since then, Albania was ruled by the communist regime of Enver Hoxha, which influenced into the country’s isolation.
On January 11, 1946, the Constitutional Assembly declared Albania a People's Republic, as one of the forms of the proletarian dictatorship, which lasted, more or less, half a century, until April 29, 1991, when the first pluralistic Parliament declared the Parliamentary Republic of Albania.
The transition from Communist rule has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a dilapidated physical infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997.
In the 2005 general elections, the Democratic Party and its allies won a decisive victory on pledges of reducing crime and corruption, promoting economic growth, and decreasing the size of government. The election, and particularly the orderly transition of power, was considered an important step forward.
Although Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure. Albania has played a largely helpful role in managing inter-ethnic tensions in southeastern Europe, and is continuing to work toward joining NATO and the EU.

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